Pakistan, no doubt, is a rich fertile country impregnated with earthly resources. It is also a rich fertile land of great political minds with “heavenly’’ resources. Every ruler, a democrat or dictator, embarked on his own elucidation of nation building. Here is summary of ten experiments made in the last 70 years. The top 10 political experiments on Pakistan made in the last 70 years:
10. National Government
(1947-1954 and 1972-1977)
Pakistan’s first constituent assembly worked for nine years without renewal of their mandate. The entire house was a constituent assembly, government, administration, the legislature and founders of new a state as well. The only thing absent from the house was opposition. Again in the 1972 session, after partition of the east wing (Bangladesh) from the west wing the assembly took itself mandate of constitution making. They have enjoyed this status for 4 years until the military overthrew it.
9. Bureaucratic Rule
Exercising powers of Governor Generalship, former civil servant of Indian Railway, Mr. Ghulam Muhammad dissolved the national assembly and introduced a bureaucratic model, headed by Choudhary Muhammad Ali from civilian bureaucracy and supervised by Major General Iskander Mirza from military bureaucracy. As one of the top political experiments on Pakistan and as professionally trained of colonial regime they promoted divide and rule policy to entertain the nation by launching back to back changes in the premiership.
8. Unitary System
One among the top political experiments on Pakistan was done on administrative ground by merging all states and provinces of the west wing in one unit. Instead of satisfying political requirements of the east wing the leadership decided to kill all local identities of the west wing. This system continued for 16 years. Unitary instigated polarity in society and the east wing poled apart from the west wing and declared its independence.
7. Presidential System
Ayub Khan conceived a presidential franchise, which was, by itself, highly Ayub centric. Another major characteristic was the element of Basic Democratic members, who was working as members of the Electoral College, councilors and legislature simultaneously. The system collapsed as Ayub Khan failed because both were indispensable to each other. The presidential System is one of the 10 political experiments on Pakistan.
6. Civilian Martial Law
Surprised defeat of Mr.Z.A Bhutto by Sheikh Mujiburrehman angered him and he refused to honor Sheikh Mujib’s mandate on the grounds of alienation of the west wing Pakistanis to Mujiburrehman. He acquired favor of civil and military bureaucracy and threw Mujib out of the furnace. In the second phase, martial law administrator Yahiya khan was forced to resign for paying costs of loss in the 1971 war. Bhutto rose as undisputed leader of Pakistan enjoying authorities of martial law administrator. This tenure remained for one year.
5. Military Martial Law
Ayub Khan, Yahiya Khan and Ziaulhaq imposed martial law in 1958-1962, 1969-1971, and 1977-1988 respectively. Among these General Ziaulhaq was shrewder than two. In his era Pakistan remained in a war situation throughout the decade bringing Afghan immigrants, drugs and conventional weapons in Pakistan. He confused nation by introducing a religious system parallel to existing system such as zakat against tax, Shariat court against federal court, hudood ordinance against criminal laws and acknowledgment of madrassa degrees against graduation degree and even Afghan citizens against Pakistani citizens. Resultant, a hybrid system of demoslamic system manifested.
4. Non party system
In 1985 the elections held on a non party system where a bulk of feudal, industrialists and retired military generals succeeded. Although counted among of the political experiments on Pakistan, this system added nothing positive in the political system of Pakistan Anyways; they were at least power players and know the ups and downs of politics that would help them to keep themselves aloof from the dirt of politics.
3. Two Party System
In one of the political experiments on Pakistan, the decade of 1990 brought a two political party system in Pakistan i.e. Muslim League (N) and the People’s Party. They enjoyed musical chair throughout the decade with the help of civil and military establishment. During this era people came to know corruption cases. This system shattered neutrality of the judiciary and dragged it into politics.
2. State of emergency
In Oct 1999, Gen Pervaiz Musharraf imposed a state of emergency in Pakistan which today is counted as one of the political experiments on Pakistan. The exercise was entirely like a military coup, but he declared it state emergency. General Musharraf tried to prop up liberal and moderate Islamized democracy in 2002 but pulled out and imposed emergency in 2007 again. This time he could not succeed as civil society and judiciary strongly opposed and resisted. This high tension era ended with the end of Musharraf’s resignation.
1. Parliamentary System
And now the parliamentary system came into power at the principles of mutual understanding. From the very first day the system followed a policy of peaceful coexistence with all power players, including military, bureaucracy, the judiciary and opposition parties. Moreover, this system is not much satisfying majority of people because corruption cases are increasingly rating high day by day.
10 Political Experiments On Pakistan In 70 Years
- Parliamentary System (2008- date)
- State of emergency (1999-2002, 2007-2008)
- Two Party System (1988-1999)
- Non party system (1985-1988)
- Military Martial Law (1958-1962,1969-1971,1977-1988)
- Civilian Martial Law (1971-1973)
- Presidential system (1962-1969)
- Unitary System (1954-1970)
- Bureaucratic Rule (1954-1958)
- National Government (1947-1954 and 1972-1977)